Global ArchitectureHistory

Every Castle and Fortress in Georgia Country: A Regional Guide

Georgia, rich in history and diverse landscapes, is home to an astonishing array of 157 castles and fortresses. These architectural marvels span from 800 to 1700 A.D., were constructed by various provincial kings, and reflect Georgia’s feudal era and architectural evolution. Notable among these are the Ananuri Fortress, built between 1200 and 1249, and the Rabati Castle, built from 1250 to 1299. Many of these structures are preserved by the United Nations, offering a unique glimpse into the nation’s past.

The fortresses and castles of Georgia played critical roles in protecting cities from enemy attacks. They were central to the country’s feudal power dynamics. The Narikala Fortress, the heart of Tbilisi, dates back to the 4th century. At the same time, the Ananuri Fortress near Tbilisi was a critical strategic and residential site. The Khertvisi Castle, one of the oldest, was a significant military stronghold. The Gremi temple complex, referred to as a castle, was once the capital of Kakheti and showcases unique 16th-century frescoes.

These castles and fortresses tell a unique story of Georgia’s past, from the seats of dukes and provincial capitals to symbols of historical eras. This guide categorizes all 157 castles and fortresses by region, offering an organized and engaging journey through Georgia’s rich historical fortifications. This introduction serves as a perfect starting point for anyone interested in exploring Georgia’s historic and architectural wonders.

Tbilisi

In Tbilisi, Georgia’s vibrant capital, there are 3 castles and fortresses that reflect the city’s long history and its status as a political, economic, and cultural centre throughout different epochs.

No Name Date of Construction
1 Tabori Castle Feudal age
2 Tbilisi Castle Feudal age
3 Narikala Fortress IV century

 

Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia

The Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia is home to 4 castles and fortresses, each representing the region’s historical depth and strategic importance in Georgia, marked by diverse cultural influences and historical events.

N Name Date of Construction Location
1 Anacopia Fortress Feudal age Gudauti Municipality
2 Satanjo Castle VIII-X century Municipality of Gali
3 Bzyb fortress VIII-X centuries. Municipality of Gagri
4 Trakei Castle VI century Gudauti Municipality

Autonomous Republic of Adjara

The Autonomous Republic of Adjara, known for its unique cultural heritage and natural beauty, has 12 castles and fortresses. These historical structures symbolise the region’s rich history and strategic significance over the centuries.

N Name Date of Construction Location
1 Batumi Castle VI Century Batumi
2 Petra Fortress VI Century Municipality of Kobuleti
3 Gonio Fortress I Century Khelvachauri municipality
4 Khikhani Fortress X-XI Centuries Khulo municipality
5 Gulebi Castle XII-XIII Centuries Municipality of Kedi
6 Saghoreti Fortress XIV-XV Centuries Municipality of Kedi
7 Civasula Castle XVI-XVII Centuries Municipality of Kedi
8 Elias Castle Municipality of Kobuleti
9 Mamuka Castle Municipality of Kobuleti
10 Gvara Castle Khelvachauri municipality
11 Begoshvili Castle XII-XIII Centuries Khulo municipality
12 Tsikhishekeli Castle XII-XIII Centuries Khulo municipality

Guria Region

In the Guria Region, characterized by its lush landscapes and rich cultural traditions, there are 4 castles and fortresses. These structures symbolize the historical resilience and architectural heritage of the region.

N Name Date of Construction Location
1 Askani Castle IV Century Ozurgeti Municipality
2 Bukitsikhe Castle Chokhatauri municipality
3 Likhauri Castle Ozurgeti Municipality
4 Ghomi Castle Middle ages Chokhatauri municipality

Imereti Region

The Imereti Region, a historically significant area in central-western Georgia, has 16 castles and fortresses. These structures reflect the region’s rich past, from its ancient roots in Colchis to its period under the Byzantine Empire and later Ottoman influence​​​​​​.

N name Date of Construction Location
1 Castle of Uchimerion VI Century Kutaisi
2 Baghdati Fortress 1703 Baghdati Municipality
3 Mtskeri Castle VIII Century Zestafoni municipality
4 Shorapni Fortress Ancient times Zestafoni municipality
5 Bertsikhe Formerly a fief. Age Terjola municipality
6 Scande Castle IV Century Terjola municipality
7 Modinakhe XVIII Century Sachkhere municipality
8 Tsutskhati Castle Middle ages Municipality of Tkibuli
9 Jvari Castle Middle ages Municipality of Tkibuli
10 Dghnornis Castle Middle ages Tskaltubo municipality
11 Katskhi Castle Feudal age Chiatura Municipality
12 Navardzeti Castle Feudal age Chiatura Municipality
13 Sveri Castle Middle ages Chiatura Municipality
14 Vakhani Castle X-XI Centuries Kharagauli municipality
15 Chkheri Castle Kharagauli municipality
16 Didgvabuni Castle formerly a fief. Age Khoni municipality

 

Kakheti Region

Once an independent principality and later a kingdom, the Kakheti Region has a storied history of peace and prosperity under the reigns of Kakhetian Kings like Alexander I and Levan. Known for developing new churches, castles, and palaces, and as an essential urban centre in the Caucasus, Kakheti is home to 20 castles and fortresses that symbolize its rich historical legacy​​​​.

N NAME DATE OF CONSTRUCTION LOCATION
1 Ujarma Fortress III-IV centuries. Municipality of Sagarejo
2 Khornabuji Fortress V century Dedoplistskaro municipality
3 Psiti Castle V-VI centuries. Telavi Municipality
4 Kveteri Fortress VIII century Akhmeta Municipality
5 Kachalauri Castle VIII-IX centuries. Akhmeta Municipality
6 Machi Castle 9th century Lagodekhi municipality
7 Bochorma Castle X century. Tianeti Municipality
8 Manavi Fortress  X-XI centuries. Municipality of Sagarejo
9 Gremi Castle X-XIII centuries. Municipality of Kvareli
10 Batonis Castle 17th century Telavi
11 Kvareli Fortress 17th century Kvareli
12 Sighnaghi Fortress-Fort 17th century Sighnaghi
13 Khashmi Castle 17th century Municipality of Sagarejo
14 Niakhura Fortress XVII-XVIII centuries. Municipality of Sagarejo
15 Laliskuri Fotress XVII-XVIII centuries. Telavi Municipality
16 Cholokashvili Castle-hall 1755-1756 Akhmeta Municipality
17 Korchibashishvili Castle 18th century Telavi
18 Matni Castle 18th century Akhmeta Municipality
19 Shildi Fortress 18th century Municipality of Kvareli
20 The second Fortress of Makashvili 18th century Telavi Municipality

Mtskheta-Mtianeti Region

The Mtskheta-Mtianeti Region, with its ancient city of Mtskheta, is a historical gem of Georgia. It is renowned for its UNESCO-listed sites and status as a spiritual centre of Georgian Christianity. This region, steeped in a rich past, is home to 2 fortresses that reflect its enduring legacy​​​​.

N Name Date of Construction Location
1 Ananuri Fotress XVI-XVIII Centuries. Dusheti municipality
 2 Arshi Fortress XVI century Kazebegi Municipality

Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti Region

The Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti Region is a picturesque area in northwestern Georgia, marked by its mountainous terrain and historical significance. This region proudly presents 2 fortresses and 1 castle, each narrating a part of Georgia’s diverse and rich historical landscape​​.

N Name Date of Construction Location
1 Kvari Fotress Feudal age Municipality of Ambrolauri
2 Minda Fortress Middle ages Municipality of Ambrolauri
3 Khotevi Castle XVII century Municipality of Ambrolauri

Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti Region

The Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti Region, located in northwestern Georgia, has stunning natural beauty and significant historical depth. Renowned for its Georgian architectural marvels from various periods and enriched with UNESCO-listed sites, this region houses 14 castles and fortresses, each contributing to the rich historical tapestry of Georgia​​​​.

N Name Date of Construction location
1 Abedati Fortress  – Martvili Municipality
2 Anaklia Fortress  – Zugdidi Municipality
3 Eki Castle  – Senaki Municipality
4 Tamakoni Castle  – Martvili Municipality
5 Kotianeti Castle  – Senaki Municipality
6 Rukhi Castle  – Zugdidi Municipality
7 Sakalandarishvili Castle  – Senaki Municipality
8 Skuri Castle  – Senaki Municipality
9 Noga Fortress  – Martvili Municipality
10 Shkefi Fortress  – Senaki Municipality
11 Tsikhegoji Fortress  – Senaki Municipality
12 Chakvinji Fortress  – Zugdidi Municipality
13 Khamiskuri Castle  – Khobi Municipality
14 Kheti Castle  – Khobi Municipality

 

Samtskhe-Javakheti Region

The Samtskhe-Javakheti Region in southern Georgia encompasses the historical provinces of Meskheti, Javakheti, and Tori. This region, bordered by Armenia and Turkey, features the Javakheti Plateau. It is renowned for its volcanic highlands and historic attractions like the Vardzia cave monasteries, Rabati Castle, and Khertvisi Fortress. Hosting 21 castles and fortresses, Samtskhe-Javakheti offers a rich tapestry of Georgia’s feudal past and architectural heritage​​​​​​.

N Name Date of Construction Location
1 Abuli Castle Akhalkalaki Municipality
2 Aspindze Castle Aspindze Municipality
3 Arkistsikhe Castle Akhaltsikhe Municipality
4 Rabati Castle IX St. Akhaltsikhe Municipality
5 Atskuri Castle XI Sc. Akhaltsikhe Municipality
6 Demoti Castle Municipality of Borjomi
7 Dviri Castle XIII-XIV centuries. Municipality of Borjomi
8 Vardi Castle Akhalkalaki Municipality
9 Zanavi Castle Middle ages Adigeni Municipality
10 Tiseli Castle Akhaltsikhe Municipality
11 Tmogvi Fortress X St. Aspindze Municipality
12 Kokhtastavi Castle Aspindze Municipality
13 Okro Fortress XIII century Adigeni Municipality
14 Petre Castle Municipality of Borjomi
15 Sakanape Castle Akhaltsikhe Municipality
16 Sles Castle Middle ages Akhaltsikhe Municipality
17 Shaori Fortress Akhalkalaki Municipality
18 Khertvisi Fortress Municipality of Borjomi
19 Khertushi Castle 1354-56 Aspindze Municipality
20 Kherkhemi Castle Middle ages Adigeni Municipality
21 Jaki Castle Early Middle Ages

 

 

Kvemo Kartli Region

Nestled in the southern expanse of Georgia, the Kvemo Kartli region is a mosaic of historical landmarks, prominently featuring 16 castles and fortresses. These structures, from the strategically located Kldekari Fortress to the imposing Kolagiri Fortress, represent a unique chapter in Georgia’s rich historical narrative. Their enduring presence offers a window into the past, showcasing this historically significant area’s architectural and cultural diversity.

N Name Date of Construction Location
1 Berdoki Castle Municipality of Bolnisi
2 Kushi Fortress Middle ages Municipality of Bolnisi
3 Kolagiri Fortress XVIII century Municipality of Bolnisi
4 Chapali Castle Middle ages Municipality of Bolnisi
5 Kojori Castle XI century Municipality of Gardabani
6 Birtvisi Fortres Tetritskaro municipality
7 Kldekari Fortress IX-X centuries Tetritskaro municipality
8 Lasti Fortress XII century Tetritskaro municipality
9 Orbeti Fortress Middle ages Tetritskaro municipality
10 Samshvilde Fortress-City Tetritskaro municipality
11 Partskhis Castle Tetritskaro municipality
12 The Santis Cyclopean Cast.e Middle ages Municipality of Tsalki
13 Khuluti Castle XVIII century Tetritskaro municipality
14 Ofreti Castle Early feudal age Marneuli municipality
15 Tsofi Castle Middle ages Marneuli municipality
15 Rustavi Fortress V-VIII centuries Rustavi
16 Gagi Fortress Marneuli municipality

 

Shida Kartli Region

The Shida Kartli Region, located in the heart of Georgia, is rich in history and cultural heritage, boasting an impressive array of 43 castles and fortresses. This area, once the economic and cultural hub during Georgia’s unified monarchy, is dotted with remarkable historical structures. Among these, the Mzovreti Monastery Fortress is a testament to Georgia’s spiritual and historical depth. At the same time, the Gori Fortress, a national monument, exemplifies the region’s military history. The Surami Fortress further highlights Shida Kartli’s strategic importance, with its 17th-century origins as a stronghold along crucial trade routes. Each fortress in this region embodies a unique story, contributing to the intricate tapestry of Georgian history and culture​​​​​​​​​​.

N Name Date of Construction Location
1 Abisi Castle XVIII century Kareli Municipality
2 Ateni Fortress X-XI century Gori Municipality
3 Akhaltsikhe Fortress XVIII century Kaspi Municipality
4 Bekhushe Castle Late Middle Ages Gori Municipality
5 Bulbuli Castle Feudal age Khashuri Municipality
6 Gori Fortress BC year 1st millennium, 1774 Gori Municipality
7 Dri Castle Developed Feudal age Kaspi Municipality
8 Vere Castle IX-X century Gori Municipality
9 Kiknatberi Castle Late Feudal Age Gori Municipality
10 Kldemaghala Castle V-VI century Kaspi Municipality
11 Mtskhetijvari Castle Feudal age Khashuri Municipality
12 Osiauri Castle XVII-XVIII century Khashuri Municipality
13 Rkoni Fortress XVIII century Kaspi Municipality
14 Surami Fortress Middle ages Khashuri Municipality
15 Skvilo Castle XIV century Kaspi Municipality
16 Tirdznis Castle II half of XVIII century Gori Municipality
17 Tskhireti Castle X century Kaspi Municipality
18 Dzamis Castle Developed Feudal Age Kareli Municipality
19 Tsedisi Fortress X century Gori Municipality
20 Achabeti Fortress Gori Municipality
21 Kekhvi Castle Gori Municipality
22 Mirmanoz Eristavi Castle XVII-XVIII century Gori Municipality
23 Atots Castle XVIII century Kareli Municipality
24 Gnolidze castle XVII-XVIII century Gori Municipality
25 Khubashvili Castle XVII-XVIII century Gori Municipality
26 Chasarbeni Castle XVII-XVIII century Gori Municipality
27 Tkviavi Fortress XVIII century Gori Municipality
28 Shindisi Fortress XVIII century Gori Municipality
29 Aradeti Fortress XVII century Kareli Municipality
30 Mdzovreti castle XVII century Kareli Municipality
31 Samtsverisi Fortress XV-XVII century Kareli Municipality
32 Skhlebi Castle Feudal age Kareli Municipality
33 Atsriskhevi Fortress XVIII century Gori Municipality
34 Pokhala Fortress Late Middle Ages Gori Municipality
35 Gozo Fortress Middle Feudal Age Gori Municipality
36 Vanati Fotress Advanced and Late Middle Ages Gori Municipality
37 Vildi Castle Late Middle Ages Gori Municipality
38 Ikorti Fortress Late Middle Ages Gori Municipality
49 Inauri Castle Late Middle Ages Gori Municipality
40 Rekomi Castle developed middle ages Gori Municipality
41 Sathikhari Castle XVIII century Gori Municipality
42 Sveri Castle Late Middle Ages Gori Municipality
43 Khaduriantubani Castle XVIII century Gori Municipality

What Did We Learn Today? 

Today, we delved into the rich tapestry of Georgia’s history, embodied in its remarkable castles and fortresses. These structures showcase architectural brilliance and narrate stories of past civilizations, wars, and rulers. We learned about the diversity of designs, each castle and fortress reflecting a specific era and cultural influence. This journey through Georgia’s historic sites reveals a country deeply rooted in history and pride, offering invaluable insights into its heritage and the resilience of its people. Indeed, Georgia’s castles and fortresses are a testament to its storied past and enduring legacy.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

nine − five =

Share via
Copy link